Situated at the northeastern edge of the Italian peninsula, the province of Udine is part of a small Italian region (Friuli Venezia Giulia), which has its specificity in being a meeting point in Europe of Latin, Germanic and Slavic peoples.
The majority of the population speaks now habitually, especially in rural and mountainous villages, Friulian (Romance language belonging to the Ladin group, formed starting from the year one thousand), a real minority language protected by state law 482/99.

In the north the province is mountainous, dominated by the Carnic and Julian Alps, with many streams that have carved narrow valleys also called "channels". These places, full of woods and waters, extensive forests populated by deers, wild boars, eagles and bears, are inhabited by people of different languages and origins: there are German alloglot islands with ancient dialects from Sauris and Timau, in Val Canale both German and Slovenian are spoken, and in Val Resia survives a Slavic dialect of remote origin.
South of the line marked by the Tagliamento river and its main tributary, the Fella, lie the Prealps, rugged and barren, high on average between 1500 and 2000 m.
The land slopes, heading south, in a hilly area, which is about 100-300 meters above sea level. To the north-west of Udine, the findings of the morainic amphitheater, known as Colli Occidentali (western hills), dotted with castles and fortresses; to the north-east, the Colli Orientali (eastern hills), famous for their wine production, and the wooded Valli del Natisone (valleys of Natisone).
The hills slope down to the south, giving way to a plain extending to the Adriatic Sea: this plain roughly corresponds to the lower basin of the Tagliamento; it is divided into a northern zone, called high plain, which is pebbly and rather dry, where waters enter the ground with easily, and a southern zone, called low plain, with compact, waterproof and well-watered soils, somewhere often swampy.